According to Werner Heisenberg's model, the linear momentum and the position of an electron or other subatomic particle, it is not possible to simultaneously predict the value of both variables. In this way, he introduces the uncertainty principle in the electron orbitals that surround the atomic nucleus.
Heisenberg established the foundations of quantum mechanics to estimate the behavior of the subatomic particles that make up an atom.
In 1927, he published his work “On the perceptual content of quantum theoretical kinematics and mechanics”, where he detailed the uncertainty or indeterminacy principle.
This principle, fundamental to his atomic model, is characterized because it emerges as an explanation that complements the new atomic theories about the behavior of electrons. Despite using measuring instruments with high precision and sensitivity, uncertainty is still present in any experimental test.
The relationship between both variables is given by an inequality. According to Heisenberg, the product of the variations of the linear momentum and the position of the particle is always greater than or equal to the quotient between Plank's constant (h = 6.62606957 x 10-34 Jules x seconds) divided by 4π.
Taking this relationship into account, if one of the magnitudes has zero, the other must increase in the same proportion.
Consequently, the Heisenberg model is based on probabilistic formulations, due to the randomness that exists between the variables at subatomic levels.