Wind energy refers to that technology and those applications that take advantage of the kinetic energy of the wind, to convert it into electrical or mechanical energy.
Thus, two types of installations can be distinguished:
Installations connected to the electrical network
Isolated installations (not connected to the electrical network)
Electrical supply in the house
Other consumer centers
There is a wide range of wind turbines, but those that show the best operating characteristics and performance are the three-blade wind turbines, with unit powers ranging between 600 kW and 1,500 kW, being a growing market, with frequent novelties.
Regarding other types of horizontal axis machines, it is worth highlighting the multi-blade windmills, with 12 to 24 rotor blades, which make it possible to take advantage of lower speed winds. They are often used for pumping water.
Regarding vertical axis machines, they are currently in disuse.
A wind farm is a set of wind turbines connected to each other at low voltage which, through the action of the wind, transform kinetic energy into electrical energy and which, after being transformed into high voltage, will be connected to the electricity grid.
These types of facilities are producing electricity that is sold to power companies.
The realization of wind farms requires locations, where the characteristics of the wind meet a series of conditions regarding speed, continuity and stability.
Normally, average annual wind speeds greater than 6.5 m/s are necessary.
The distribution and location of the wind turbines in a wind farm depends on the orography of the land and the prevailing wind directions in the area.
Normally, the wind turbines are located linearly, following the profile of the summit, and are oriented according to the wind conditions.
The distance between wind turbines, although it depends on the direction of the wind, remains between 2 and 3 times the diameter of the blades.
In water pumping facilities, it is common to use multi-blade windpumps.
The wind generates mechanical energy that drives the installation's pump, which will allow the water to rise to the tank. These windpumps work at low speed, so you need to have as many blades as possible, usually between 12 and 24.
These facilities are common in rural areas, and for own consumption.
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