In the energy use of the wind, wind machines allow solving, from small power applications for water pumping or rural electrification (small power machines), to wind farms (high power installations) connected to the electrical network, with wind turbines of nominal powers between 150 kW and 1,500 kW.
In all cases, these machines are made up of the same basic elements: a mobile element for capturing kinetic energy from the wind, called a rotor, which is coupled to a shaft that is connected to a pump or an electric generator, depending on the use to which it is put. be made of the apparatus.
The most widely used devices today, wind turbines, are horizontal axis machines that consist of a rotor, which captures energy from the wind, and an energy conversion system that is attached to the rotor. Using an electric generator, it transforms mechanical energy into electrical energy. The set is completed with a frame and a casing that houses the mechanisms, and also a tower on which the entire system is assembled, and which also includes the corresponding electrical subsystems. Let's look at the components in more detail.
It is the part of the machine that transforms wind energy into mechanical energy. By increasing the diameter of the blades, the wind catchment area and the power provided by the machine can be increased.
The power supplied by the wind per unit area swept is known as wind power intensity. Above a power intensity of 200 W/m2, it can already be profitable to generate electricity from wind turbines.
The multiplier is a set of gears that transform the low speed at which the rotor shaft rotates (between 20 and 30 turns per minute) to a higher speed, which is communicated to the shaft that rotates the generator.
The purpose of the generator is to transform the mechanical energy coming from the rotor of the machine into electrical energy. This energy will be transferred to the electrical network or will be used by a consumption center attached to the facility.
The nacelle is the frame and casing assembly of the wind turbine. The frame is a piece on which the main mechanical elements (rotor, multiplier, generator) of the wind turbine are attached and which is located on the tower. This frame is protected by a casing, generally fiberglass and polyester, reinforced with stainless steel profiles.
They are the elements of the wind turbine responsible for capturing the kinetic energy of the wind. It is one of the most critical components of the machine, since in long blades, which allow a better use of energy, the high speeds that are achieved at the ends push the resistance of the materials with which they are made to the limit ( typically fiberglass and polyester).